Developing Accessible, Mobile-Friendly, Applications and Content in Support of Students with Print Disabilities in Grades 4-9

with an emphasis on Mathematics



Steve Jacobs, President
IDEAL Group, Inc. and,
CEO, Apps4Android, Inc.
Phone: (614) 777-0660
TTY: (800) 750-0750


April 3, 2012




1.0 Credits

2.0 Preface

2.1 Definitions

2.1.1 eText

2.1.2 Content

2.1.3 eText Support

2.1.4 Print Disability

2.2 Objectives of This Paper

2.3 Note from the Author

3.0 Mobile Ecosystem

4.0 Mobile Learning

4.1 Mobile Learning: The Benefits

4.2 Mobile Learning: Device Ownership among Teenagers

4.3 Mobile Learning: Impacts on Pre-K to 12th Grade Students

5.0 Mathematics

5.1 Acquisition of Math Skills

5.2 Math Achievement Scores

5.3 The Mathematics Divide

6.0 Mobile Industry

7.0 Industry Exemplar 1: Apple

7.1 Mobile Devices: Accessibility Features and Applications

8.0 Industry Exemplar 2: Google

9.0 Developing Mobile-Friendly Content

9.1 Benefits of Responsive Design

9.2 Accessibly-Designed Mobile Applications: 10 Examples

9.2.1 Application 1: IDEAL Ask EinDroid II Beta

9.2.2 Application 2: IDEAL Knowledgebase

9.2.3 Application 3: IDEAL WebMath

9.2.4 Application 4: IDEAL MathWriter Beta

9.2.5 Application 5: Speech Dictation for Math

9.2.6 Application 6: IDEAL AndroidVox Browser

9.2.7 Application 7: IDEAL ePub3 Reader

9.2.8 Application 8: KhanDroid

9.2.9 Application 9: IDEAL Formula Finder Beta

9.2.10 Application 10: NASA’s Math Description Engine (MDE)

10.0 Mobile Testing Tools

10.1 GoMo

10.2 W3C mobileOK Checker

10.3 Google Mobilizer

Appendix 1: Guidelines for Mobile Accessibility

Appendix 2: Mobile Application Developer Guidelines

Appendix 3: Author’s Bio



1.0 Credits |top|

We would like to extend our sincerest gratitude to the following organizations for reaching their hands out to meet ours in support of developing accessible, mobile-friendly, Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) applications and content in support of people with disabilities:


2.0 Preface |top|

This paper was written in support of the research being conducted by the Mathematics eText Research Center (MeTRC)[1] project at the University of Oregon's Center for Advanced Technology in Education. MeTRC is conducting a systematic program of research over five years to investigate four research questions related to students with print disabilities in grades 4-9 in rural, suburban, and urban settings across the United States.  The questions being researched are:

2.1 Definitions |top|

The terms eText, content, and eText Support can be defined in many ways. In order to avoid confusion, these terms are defined as follows:

2.1.1 eText |top|

noun; often referred to as electronic text. ASCII text that is in a form that a computer can store or display on a computer screen

2.1.2 Content |top|

noun; refers to what is included on Webpages, distance learning materials, and the pages of electronic publications. Content may refer to graphs, charts, images, videos, concept maps, podcasts, blogs, text-to-speech voices, language translations, drawings, photos, simulations, videos, sounds, and music, etc.

2.1.3 eText Support |top|

noun; content that has been modified in ways that are designed to increase access and support comprehension

The concept of eText Supports was developed by Dr. Mark Horney and Dr. Lynne Anderson-Inman of the University of Oregon.  eText Supports can be categorized by the role they play in increasing access to, and comprehension of the process of reading.  There are eleven types of eText supports[2]:

  1. Navigational Resources
    Navigational resources provide tools that allow the reader to move within a document or between documents. Navigational resources can include within-document links, across-document links, embedded menus, and links from other resources such as table of contents, glossary, and bibliography.

  2. Explanatory Resources
    Explanatory resources provide information that seeks to clarify the what, where, how, or why of some concept, object, process, or event. Examples of explanatory resources include: clarifications, interpretations or descriptions that point to causes, operations, components, mechanisms, parts, methods, procedures, context, or consequences. A list of influencing factors can also be an explanatory resource.

  3. Summarizing Resources
    Summarizing resources provide a summarized or condensed way of viewing some feature of the document. Summarizing resources might include: a table of contents, concept map, list of key ideas, chronology, timeline, cast of characters, or an abstract.

  4. Instructional Resources
    Instructional resources provide prompts, questions, strategies or instruction designed to teach some aspect of the text or how to read and interpret the text. Instructional resources might include: tutorials, self-monitoring comprehension questions, annotations, instructional prompts, study guides, embedded study strategies, online mentoring, or tips for effective reading.

  5. Collaborative Resources
    Collaborative resources provide tools for working or sharing with other readers, the author, or some other audience. Collaborative resources might include: a threaded discussion, online chat, email links, podcasts, or blogs.

  6. Presentational Resources
    Presentational resources enable the text and accompanying graphics to be presented in varying ways, hence customizable to meet the needs of individual readers. Examples of presentational resources include: font size and style, text and background color, line and page length, page layout and juxtaposition with other pages, and graphics in relationship to text.

  7. Translational Resources
    Translational resources provide a one-to-one equivalent or simplified version that is more accessible or familiar to the reader. Resources may focus on a single word, phrase, paragraph, picture, or whole document. Translational resources may use the same or different modality or media as the text being translated. Some examples of translational resources include: synonyms, definitions, digitized or synthesized text-to-speech, alternate language equivalents (Spanish), video of ASL translation, simplified version at lower reading level, text descriptions for images, and captions for video.

  8. Illustrative Resources
    Illustrative resources provide a visual representation of something in the text. They are designed to support, supplement, or extend comprehension of the text through illustrations that help readers visualize the content. Many illustrative resources appear using media other than text, but text can also be used to illustrate concepts and processes. Some examples of illustrative resources include: drawings, photos, simulations, video, reenactments, sounds, music, and information that something is representative of its type (“…. is a typical example of…”).

  9. Enrichment Resources
    Enrichment resources provide supplementary information that is not strictly needed to comprehend the text, but adds to the readers’ appreciation or understanding of its importance or historical context. Enrichment resources might include: background information, publication history, biography of the author, footnotes, bibliography, or impact of the author on other writers.

  10. Notational Resources
    Notational resources provide tools for marking or taking notes on the text to enable later retrieval for purposes of studying or completing assignments. Notational resources might include: electronic highlighting, bookmarking, post-its, margin notes, outlining, drawing, or ways to gather and group these notes for post-reading review.

  11. Evaluative Resources
    Evaluative resources provide materials, prompts, and assignments designed to assess student learning from the text. Evaluative resources can include: questions, quizzes, tests, surveys, online interviews, and assignments leading to products.

2.1.4 Print Disability |top|

The definition of a print disability is generally considered a functional definition[3]. That is, a student with a print disability is one who is unable to gain information from printed materials at an anticipated level for their grade and needs alternative access or a specialized format (i.e., Braille, Large Print, Audio, Digital text) to access that information. This includes students with visual, physical, perceptual, developmental, cognitive, or learning disabilities. 

To get the most out of this paper, it’s important to understand the impact print disabilities can have on the process of learning. For example, a student with a print disability may[4]:

Students with print disabilities may also have difficulty writing. Students with writing disabilities may[5]:

In addition, students with print disabilities taking a math class may have difficulty[6]:

As evidenced above, students with print disabilities taking math classes face many potential challenges.

2.2 Objectives of This Paper |top|

The objectives of this paper are to:

  1. explain why mobile devices are becoming an increasingly important part of our educational system;

  2. describe how mobile technologies serve to both address and to complicate our notions of the digital divide, the gulf between the Internet technology haves and have-nots;

  3. provide examples of math-focused mobile applications and content that can accommodate the access needs of students with print disabilities; and,

  4. provide strategies for designing mobile content that are fully-accessible to students with print disabilities.

2.3 Note from the Author |top|

This paper was written from the standpoint of knowing a little bit about math, and a lot about developing accessible applications and content for mobile devices. This is not a research paper.  This paper is based on my experience as an IT professional. It presents my personal perspective regarding the development of accessible, mobile-friendly content for students with print disabilities.

My name is Steve Jacobs. I have been working in IT industry for the past 37 years. I am president of IDEAL Group[7], an accessibility consulting firm, and CEO of Apps4Android[8], the world’s largest developer of Android mobile accessibility applications with 26 applications[9] and 4.4 million installations[10]. Apps4Android's mobile applications are being used on over 850 different Android devices[11], made by 47 manufacturers[12], and distributed by 60 wireless service providers[13], in 136 countries[14].

Apps4Android, IDEAL Group owns Onymous Heroes, a second Android software development company. Onymous Heroes develops Android utilities, browsers, application installers, image animation applications, and much more. Onymous has 17 applications with 958K installations worldwide[15].

In addition, Apps4Android provides support for Google's 13 Eyes-Free® applications, even though Apps4Android did not develop them. There are currently 51.2 million installations[16] of Google’s Eyes-Free applications. Apps4Android supports Google's Eyes-Free apps because:

   Apps4Android's apps interact with and depend upon Google's Eyes-Free applications to function properly; and,

   Google does not provide telephone or e-mail support for the Eyes-Free project applications.


3.0 Mobile Ecosystem |top|

I remember taking my first university-level Ecology course in the mid ‘60s. At that time, the science of Ecology was gaining significant prominence because of increasing concern about our environment. We spent most of the first semester studying ecosystems. We learned that an ecosystem:

  1. Represents a complex set of relationships among living resources, habitats, and residents of an area;

  2. Includes plants, trees, animals, fish, birds, microorganisms, water, soil, and people; and,

  3. Can be self-sustaining as long as it remains “healthy.”

We also learned that ecosystems provide many benefits to humankind.

Today, the term “ecosystem” has been widely adopted by the high-tech community to describe telecommunication infrastructures supported by a foundation of interacting components that are critical to the success of business; education; entertainment; medicine; and individuals, the “organisms” of these domains.

Our mobile ecosystem functions as a virtuous cycle, with new spectrums fueling the construction of new networks; new networks driving the development of innovative mobile devices; new devices featuring new capabilities made possible by advancing technology; and new platforms that motivate and support developers who wish to create applications, content, and services. This cycle, driven by competitive forces, has provided incredible dividends for U.S. consumers who enjoy some of the most extensive, least expensive, most advanced, mobile wireless services in the world. The diagram below depicts the domains of our wireless ecosystem.



4.0 Mobile Learning |top|

The term mLearning, or "mobile learning" is related to e-learning and distance education.  However, it is distinct in its focus on learning across contexts and learning with mobile devices. Mobile learning uses handheld devices to provide learning “anywhere, anytime,” reach underserved students, improve “21st century social interactions,” link students to online learning environments, and deliver more personalized learning experiences. For the purposes of this report, the term “mLearning” is used to describe “learning” that takes place through the use of a mobile device. Based on this definition, lets further explore this important ecosystem.

4.1 Mobile Learning: The Benefits |top|

A recent review of research on mobile learning by Dr. Naomi Norman surveyed benefits for mobile learning as perceived by members of the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK. Many of the benefits identified in Dr. Norman’s report parallel those of mobile learning for students K-12. A summary of the key benefits are as follows[17]:

4.2 Mobile Learning: Device Ownership among Teenagers |top|

Smartphones are gaining teenage users. Some 23% of all those ages 12-17 say they have a smartphone, and ownership is highest among older teens: 31% of those ages 14-17 have a smartphone, compared with just 8% of youth ages 12-13[18]. Teens whose parents have a college education are slightly more likely than teens whose parents have a high school diploma or less to have a smartphone (26% vs. 19%).

Overall, 16% of all teens have used a tablet computer to go online in the last 30 days, and smartphone owners are also the most likely to be tablet users. Some 30% of smartphone users have used tablets to go online in the past month, while 13% of regular phone users and 9% of those without cell phones have done the same. Fewer smartphone users have used the Internet on a desktop or laptop computer in the last month than regular phone users (85% vs. 93%.)

Overall, 77% of those ages 12-17 have a cell phone. The percentage of younger teens ages 12 and 13 with cell phones has declined slightly since 2009; 57% of younger teens owned cell phones in 2011, compared with 66% in 2009.

Through broadband-enabled smartphones like the iPhone and Android devicecs, students are able to engage in a number of activities, such as accessing course assignments, completing activities, playing games, reading educational materials, and communicating with teachers and classmates.

4.3 Mobile Learning: Impacts on Pre-K to 12th Grade Students |top|

The many and varied uses of high-speed access to the Internet (Broadband) by students in pre-Kindergarten through high school have had discernible impacts on student achievement and development of real world skills. For example, mobile learning[19]:


5.0 Mathematics |top|

Many students find math to be a challenging subject. When asked about the importance of excelling in science, technology, engineering, and math, U.S. Secretary of Education, Arnie Duncan stated, “Children only have one chance for an education. And the youth who are in school now need a better education today if they are to thrive and succeed tomorrow. Ensuring that our nation’s children are excelling in the fields of Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) is essential[20]

America’s STEM Crisis[21]

Many of the great names of America are synonymous with invention—Franklin, DuPont, Bell, Edison, Wright, Ford, Salk, Gates, and Jobs. From the start, leadership in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) has been America’s path to national greatness. In the 21st Century, these STEM-driven high-tech industries, from integrated circuits, to biotech, to aerospace, remain bright spots for a U.S. economy that has seen advantages in heavy manufacturing and other industries steadily erode.

The United States is producing a declining share of the world’s science and engineering papers, a declining share of scientific citations, and a declining share of the world’s STEM-related Ph.D.s. Unfortunately, there does not appear to be any momentum to arrest, much less reverse, this decline.

More than half of those with science and engineering degrees in the workforce are forty years of age or older. Lockheed Martin reports that it will need 90,000 American engineers by 2016. Will there be anyone to fill these valuable positions? The numbers now enrolled in STEM subjects in college today cannot possibly meet the future need of businesses such as Lockheed and its peers.

U.S. business leaders are increasingly asking: How much longer can U.S.-based global firms continue to pay American scientists and engineers competitive salaries when comparable talent is on tap at one-third the cost in India and China?

In such an environment, talk of American exceptionalism runs the risk of sounding delusional. If our scientific and technological edge continues to deteriorate, the United States will likely lose competitiveness, let alone its global leadership.

From Preschool to College, Learn by Doing

Current research goes against the grain of many who work in early childhood education. They often believe that young children cannot handle the abstract thought that enables mathematical learning.

And yet, a powerful and growing body of research refutes this popular view. Evidence shows children can become adept at the mathematical thinking that underlies future success in STEM careers at shockingly young ages. In fact, children can prepare for early math and science well before they enter kindergarten.

To make the most of early childhood education, young children need intentional teaching, a planned curriculum, and activities to explore. This is not a matter of flash cards and rote learning, but of experiential learning. To cite one example: Young children’s mathematical abilities can be measurably cultivated by the use of board games (like “Chutes and Ladders”) that combine visual, spatial, kinesthetic, auditory and temporal clues about counting and the relative values of numbers. Children also strongly benefit from “math talk[22]” and mathematizing[23]—converting informal and intuitive knowledge into formal and organized ways of thinking and representation.

Children can best learn about engineering not as a separate discipline, but as a platform on which to build their understanding of math and science.

5.1 Acquisition of Math Skills[24] |top|

A majority of children who are poorly prepared for learning mathematics upon entering school are from low-income households. To a lesser extent, but still significant, poor preparedness affects students with print disabilities. 

The successful acquisition of early mathematics skills is critical to later achievement in life. For example,

In short, those who start with a solid foundation in mathematics stay ahead. Those who don’t, tend to stay behind.

5.2 Math Achievement Scores |top|

Every year, The U.S. Department of Education publishes, “The Nation’s Report Card (NRC).” Its purpose is to inform the public about the academic achievement of elementary and secondary students in the United States. Report cards communicate the findings of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), a continuing and nationally representative measure of achievement in various subjects over time.  The results of the 2011 NRC were alarming. Sixty percent of 4th grade[25] and 66% of 8th grade math achievement scores were below proficient levels.[26]

5.3 The Mathematics Divide |top|

Among 4th grade students scoring at the lower end of the mathematics achievement scale (below the 25th percentile)[27]:

Among eighth-graders who scored below the 25th percentile mathematics achievement level[28]:

Children most affected by the mathematics divide also face another challenge…. not having access to a computer with a broadband connection to the Internet. This makes it difficult, if not impossible, to use Internet-based resources to leverage the success of their studies. Broadband adoption in low-income, minority households lagged significantly behind that of other groups. In addition, lower income families, people with less education, individuals with disabilities, Blacks, Hispanics, and rural residents generally lagged the national average in broadband adoption.

One of the benefits of mobile technology is that many cell phones and all smart phones/ tablets offer the ability to connect to the Internet. In many instances, the speeds of the Internet connections rival broadband connections. Since most smart phones can perform many of the same tasks as a PC…smartphones can help to bridge the broadband digital divide.

It is important to note here that not all students, or student’s families, can afford to purchase a smartphone. However, prices are coming down significantly as evidenced by the following plans (current as of March, 26, 2012)


6.0 Mobile Industry |top|

If someone asked you to identify the largest, technology-based, assistive technology (AT) device manufacturer in the world, who would you name?  Chances are, you would not even think of naming Apple Computers. Think about it. Every device manufactured by Apple comes with a built-in screenreader and many other accessibility tools. The same holds true for mobile device manufacturers who embrace the Android operating system. Those devices also include a myriad of accessibility applications and tools.  Those manufacturers include the likes of Samsung, HTC, Motorola, and LG. While you might think that I am stretching the definition of “AT device,” I’m not. Assistive technology devices are identified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) as[33]:

“any item, piece of equipment or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of children with disabilities.”

By this definition any wireless device that provides students with print disabilities the ability to read content, conduct Internet-based research, and take mLearning classes is an assistive technology device.

Many people believe that wireless device manufacturers and platform developers should have some “responsibility” to society for making their products and services fully accessible to individuals with disabilities. However, “giving something” to society is not necessarily self-sustaining or cost effective if done for reasons of charity.[34] Wireless manufacturers and platform developers only have the ability to “give something” to society when they are making money.

Here are a few high-level examples of developer-focused, industry-based, accessibility resources:

  1. Fully Integrated Accessibility Frameworks
    Built-in accessibility support, including common, reusable programming components that enable developers to easily create applications and Web-based resources that are fully-accessible using mobile devices

  2. Manufacturer/Platform Provider-Developed Accessibility Applications
    Accessibility applications built into the platform or device

  3. Robust, Accessible, Operating Platforms
    Such as Windows Mobile, iOS, and the Android operating system

  4. Accessibility-Focused Developer Tools and Resources
    This includes Accessibility-focused Software Development Kits (SDKs)
    [35], Technical Documentation[36], Technical Articles, Tutorials and Sample Code[37], Developer Forums[38], and Discount Device Purchase Programs (DDPP)[39].

  5. Accessible Software Distribution Services
    Accessible software distribution services enable developers to sell what they develop through App Stores.  App Stores give customers the ability to purchase and download developers’ applications directly from the Internet.


7.0 Industry Exemplar 1: Apple |top|

Apple Inc., together with subsidiaries, designs; manufactures; and markets personal computers, mobile communication devices, and portable, digital, music and video players; as well as sells various related software, services, peripherals, and networking solutions.

Apple builds accessibility into every device they manufacture. iOS has built-in accessibility support, including common, reusable programming components that enable developers to easily create mobile applications that are fully-accessible.

Apple is an excellent working example of the Corporate Social Innovation Model.  For more than 20 years, Apple has provided new and innovative solutions for people with disabilities through their mainstream products, such as the Mac, iPod, iPhone, and iPad.

Apple integrates assistive technology into the fabric of its products as standard features at no additional cost to the user.

7.1 Mobile Devices: Accessibility Features and Applications |top|

The following section highlights some of the standard accessibility features of the iPhone/iPad that accommodate the access needs of users with print disabilities.


VoiceOver is a screenreader. A screenreader is a software application that attempts to identify and interpret what is being displayed on the screen of a computer or mobile device. This interpretation is then re-presented to the user with text-to-speech, sound icons, or a Braille output device.

VoiceOver is integrated into the fabric of the Mac OS X, iPhone 3GS, iPhone 4, iPad, and iPod Nano. It is a gesture-based screenreader. VoiceOver enables the use of simple gestures to physically interact with items on the screen. Users just touch the screen to hear an item’s description, then gesture with a double-tap, drag, or flick to invoke the command or execute the iPad application.

VoiceOver enables users to interact directly with objects.  This enables them to understand an object’s location and context. As a user drags his finger around the screen, he learns what is nearby.  This provides a valuable sense of “relationship and context” to users with vision-impairments.

VoiceOver also provides information about the device it is being used on.  For example, the battery level, network signal level, and time of day. Users are also notified when the display changes to landscape or portrait orientation and when the screen is locked or unlocked.

VoiceOver: Adjustable Speaking Rate

The speaking rate is adjustable. Distinctive sound effects are used to apprise users when an application opens, when the screen is updated, when a message dialog appears, and much more. When VoiceOver talks, the volume of background sounds are reduced.

When an item on the screen is selected, a black rectangle called the VoiceOver Cursor appears around it. The VoiceOver Cursor is displayed for the benefit of sighted users. When privacy is required, users can activate a screen curtain to disable the imaging on their display.

In addition to touching and dragging around the screen, users can also flick left and right to move the VoiceOver Cursor to the next or previous item on the screen. Flicking enables users to make precise choices about what they hear, even if it is difficult to place their fingers on the item.

VoiceOver: Text Entry Echoing

When users type text, such as an email message or a note, VoiceOver echoes each character on the keyboard as it is being typed.  It speaks it again to confirm what was typed. A touch-typing feature automatically enters the last character heard when the user lifts his finger. The iPad offers word prediction and spelling corrections. With Speak Auto-Text enabled, the user hears a sound effect after which the suggested word is spoken automatically.

Navigation: The Rotor

VoiceOver features a virtual control called a rotor. Users can turn the rotor on by rotating two fingers on the screen as if they were turning an actual dial. This gesture changes the way VoiceOver moves through a document based on user settings. For example, a flick up or down might move the cursor through text, word by word. But when the character setting is selected, the same gesture will move the cursor through the text, character by character.

The rotor helps users navigate Web pages. When on a Web page, the rotor contains the names of common items, such as headers, links, form elements, images, and more.

Refreshable Braille Display Support

A refreshable Braille display is an electro-mechanical device for displaying Braille characters, usually by means of raising dots through holes in a flat surface. Blind users, who cannot see the screen of a wireless device, use them to read text output.

The iPhone 4/5, iPhone 3GS, and iPod Touch (3rd generation) support more than 30 Bluetooth wireless Braille displays right out of the box. Included are software drivers for over 40 USB and wireless Braille displays. Through a unique feature called Braille mirroring, more than one Braille device may be supported at a time. In fact, up to 32 Braille displays can be connected simultaneously to the same computer. Imagine the possibilities for classrooms at schools for the blind. Teachers can share what they are working on with students who read Braille.  This is no different from a sighted user sharing his computer screen, using a video projector.

Word Suggestion: Speak Auto-Text

Auto text suggests words before the user finishes typing a word. When a user hears a suggestion, he can accept it without being interrupted. It also automatically corrects words that have been misspelled.

The iPhone, iPod, and iPad use Speak Auto-Text. 

Tactile Buttons

Tactile buttons are controls on wireless devices that are easy to physically locate and use.

The iPad includes a few, easily-discernible physical buttons: the sleep/wake button, located on the top edge; the screen rotation lock switch and volume-control buttons, located on the upper-right edge; and the home button, centered below the display.

Accessible User Guides

The user guides for all Apple products are designed with accessibility in mind.

Audible and Vibrating Alerts

Audible and vibrating alerts are features that provide vibration and auditory feedback to users.

The iPhone delivers audible and tactile alerts. Alerts can be set for phone calls, text messages, incoming and sent mail, and calendar events. The iPhone also offers an audio option confirming keyboard click. Users can set incoming calls to display a full-screen image or photo of the caller.  In silent mode, the iPhone vibrates instead of playing a tone.

Additional Accessibility Information

The links below outline the accessibility features Apple has built into its products.


8.0 Industry Exemplar 2: Google |top|

Google is a global technology leader focused on improving the ways people connect with information. Google’s innovations in web search and advertising have made its Website a top internet property, and its brand one of the most recognized in the world. 

Information access is at the core of Google’s mission to “make the world’s information universally accessible and useful.” That is why in addition to crawling, indexing, and ranking billions of Web sites, images, videos, and other content, Google also works to make that content available in all languages and in accessible formats.

Google wants to make information available to everyone, and that includes people with disabilities. The company has found that by providing alternative access modes, like keyboard shortcuts, captions, high-contrast views, and text-to-speech technology, it helps everyone, not just people with disabilities. For example, keyboard shortcuts help power users get things done more quickly without using a mouse; speech-to-text technology enables people to skim and search audio content; and custom product themes give people more opportunities to personalize.

Android Platform

The Android platform includes a built-in text-to-speech engine and a screenreader to enable phone manufacturers to deliver accessible smartphones. Blind and deaf users also benefit from the wide variety of Android hardware options available, giving users the flexibility to choose a phone with the features that best meets their needs.

Android phones can also be highly customized by downloading third-party accessibility applications that make nearly every function possible without sight, including phone calls, text messaging, email, web browsing, and more.


YouTube is a video-sharing Web site on which users can upload, share, and view videos. Google would like YouTube videos to be accessible to everyone, whether or not they can hear or understand the language. Much YouTube content is already available with captions.  A small percentage of videos are audio-described.

Accessibility Features and Applications

The following sections highlight some of the standard accessibility features of Android devices that accommodate the access needs of users with print disabilities.

Keyboard Tutor

Easily learn the phone's buttons and keyboard layout. Press any key and hear that key spoken aloud.


Designed to produce non-spoken tactile (vibrational) feedback


Designed to produce non-spoken auditory feedback


This is a screenreading application that produces spoken feedback when using native Android applications.

Text-To-Speech Extended

A text-to-speech library for use by other applications, it extends the functionality of the Android Text-to-Speech (TTS) and Application Program Interface (API).

Accessibility Preferences:

Enables users to set preferences for accessibility applications

Eyes-Free Configuration Manager

This application lists available applications from the eyes-free project. This application enables users to set the eyes-free shell as their default home application.

Eyes-Free Keyboard

An augmented version of the Gingerbread, on-screen keyboard that provides enhanced low-vision accessibility

Eyes-Free Shell

Provides one-touch access to Android applications

Explore-by-Touch Mode

When the feature is turned on, the operating system’s built-in voice will read out the name of the icon or whatever text that your finger is resting on. This will allow you to find the apps you need without even having to look at the screen. Once you’ve found what you need, you can simply lift your finger and give the icon a single tap to launch it. Scrolling up and down lists will require two fingers (since one-finger sliding is for identifying items).

Additional Google Accessibility Resources


9.0 Developing Mobile-Friendly Content |top|

  Oh, the tangled webs we weave.  OK. Excuse the pun. Web developers have long passed the point of being able to keep up with the ever-changing resolutions of new wireless devices. There are hundreds of different resolutions.  Here’s a database of a few of them:

Creating a separate Website for each resolution of wireless device is impossible. Fortunately, there’s a solution to the problem. It’s called Responsive Web design.

Responsive design enables Web developers to design Webpages that respond to user’s behaviors and environments based upon the screen size of the device they are using, the platform the device runs on, and the orientation of the screen.  In other words, one Website fits all (desktops, laptops, tablets, netbooks, and mobile devices). Here’s the URL to the Website we used to capture the screenshots:

Connect to this Website and resize your browser window a few times.



9.1 Benefits of Responsive Design |top|

The benefits of Responsive-Design are[40]:

  1. Only Requires One Code Base
    One code base means there is less code to maintain.  One accessible collection of content that adapts to desktops, tablets, and smartphones automatically saves time, money, and headaches.  One content design and development phase, instead of two or more, cuts development cycle times. As content changes, developers can modify one code base that automatically updates the content being viewed on desktops, tablets, and smartphones.

  2. Device Agnostic
    Another major advantage is that the content is device agnostic. Properly designed accessible content will look good on any smartphone, tablet, or desktop without developing dedicated, separate mobile content that has to be optimized for a multitude of devices. This can be a major cost saving.

  3. Not only a Tool for Mobile Devices
    Accessible responsive design has the potential to change how desktop users use content. For example, you can have multiple browser windows open, side by side, and see all of the relevant content in each window.

You can read more about Responsive Design on Ethan Marcotte’s Website.

Here are a few additional Websites designed using the practice of responsive design:

9.2 Accessibly-Designed Mobile Applications: 10 Examples |top|

This section includes examples of Android applications and general approaches to making math content accessible to students with print disabilities.

9.2.1 Application 1: IDEAL Ask EinDroid II Beta |top|

Accessible Design Strategy:

Use mobile-based speech recognition and text-to-speech technology to interact with standard Web-based educational resources.


IDEAL Ask EinDroid II is a speech-driven application that enables a user to submit a question to True Knowledge, on any topic (including math), using natural speech.  The application provides answers in both text and text-to-speech (the smart device being used must have text-to-speech capabilities) formats.


9.2.2 Application 2: IDEAL Knowledgebase |top|

Accessible Design Strategy:

Use mobile-based speech recognition and text-to-speech technology to interact with standard Web-based educational resources.


IDEAL Knowledgebase Beta is a speech-driven application that enables a user to submit a question to Wolfram Alpha, on any topic (including math), using natural speech.  The application provides answers in both text and text-to-speech (the smart device being used must have text-to-speech capabilities) formats.



9.2.3 Application 3: IDEAL WebMath |top|

Accessible Design Strategy:

Replace complex web-based interfaces with simplified, mobile application-based interfaces.

Description: is a math-help web site hosted by Discovery Education. Webmath helps students learn how to solve math problems ranging from simple addition to Trigonometry & Calculus. Solutions to all problems are presented in a real-time, step-by-step manner. The objectives for developing IDEAL WebMath were as follows:

  1. To make it easier for millions of students with print disabilities to access and use the WebMath Website due to its complexity;

  2. To provide students who do not have PCs at home another port-of-entry to this great Discovery Education resource;

  3. To provide an easy-to-access, simplified interface to Webmath; and,

  4. To provide students with a "mobile math resource" that serves as a tutor in that it shows students how to solve ANY math problem, STEP-BY-STEP... with detailed explanations.


The following chart compares the resources required to access and use the web-based version of WebMath as compared to IDEAL Android WebMath:


Web-based WebMath


Enter a problem:

1. Go To:

2. Click on K-8;

3. Click on Multiply;

4. Enter Multiplicand;

5. Enter Multiplier;

6. Click on Multiply Them;

7. Results Displayed…

1. Open IDEAL Webmath

2. Touch Multiply two numbers

3. Enter Multiplicand;

4. Enter Multiplier;

5. Click on Multiply Them;

6. Results Displayed

Page Objects Involved:

54 HTTP Requests;

369,680 Bytes of data;

43 Images;

6 Scripts;

3 CSS imports; and,

1 Iframe;

1 HTTP Request; and,

858 bytes of data

9.2.4 Application 4: IDEAL MathWriter Beta |top|

Accessible Design Strategy:

Enable students to write math equations/symbols on the touch-screen of small wireless devices and then automatically convert the equations into MathML and LaTeX for later use.


IDEAL Mathwriter Beta can be used to write math notes and have them automatically converted to MathML and LaTeX.



9.2.5 Application 5: Speech Dictation for Math |top|

Accessible Design Strategy:

Add a speech-based interface to a Windows-based math editor, then port the speech macros to drive IDEAL Mathwriter (see Application 4)


The objective of this project is to develop speech macros that enable the automated entry of equations into InftyEditor. InftyEditor is a math editor capable of editing/exporting/creating math documents into the following formats:

Upon completion of developing the macros, they will be ported to Android where they will be compatible with IDEAL Mathwriter.

9.2.6 Application 6: IDEAL AndroidVox Browser |top|

Accessible Design Strategy:

Develop an accessible browser that has the ability to read math content using text-to-speech.


IDEAL AndroidVox Browser is a gesture and keyboard navigation-based, fully-accessible, Android browser


9.2.7 Application 7: IDEAL ePub3 Reader |top|

Accessible Design Strategy:

Use an ePub3 Reader to render math content into accessible formats, enable students to take math notes and render them into LaTeX and MathML, and use speech recognition to command and control the ePub Reader.


On February 15, 2011, the first Public Draft of the EPUB 3 was released,[41] which significantly enhances support for math and science content in ebooks. The new specification provides the ability to create math in enhanced ebooks that can be copied into calculation apps, math-based search, and other applications, as well as greater accessibility of mathematics for those with special needs.

EPUB 3 uses the information-rich MathML encoding for mathematics notation, whereas earlier versions of the EPUB format treated equations primarily as images. MathML is already being used by other applications and publishers, and has been adopted as the format of choice for the accessibility community. The new EPUB specifications will be able to better leverage existing technologies such as MathType, MathPlayer, and InftyReader as well as other production tools for math and science content.

For more discussion about the potential impact of EPUB 3 for math and science publishing, join the Ebooks for Math and Science group at Linked-in[42].



The following functional flowchart identifies all of the components of the ePub3 Reader under development.


9.2.8 Application 8: KhanDroid |top|

Accessible Design Strategy:

Create an accessible, mobile, “port-of-entry” to Khan Academy STEM video tutorials.


KhanDroid is a fully accessible Android application that enables its users to view Khan Academy's wonderful library of more than 2,200 micro lectures via video tutorials stored on YouTube. Topics covered include math, history, finance, physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, and economics.

Khan Academy is a not-for-profit educational organization created in 2006, by Salman Khan, with the mission of "providing a high quality education to anyone, anywhere.” All of Khan Academy's resources are available to anyone. It doesn't matter if you are a student, teacher, home-schooler, principal, adult returning to the classroom after 20 years, or a friendly alien just trying to get a leg up in earthly biology. The Khan Academy's materials and resources are available to you completely at no cost to its users, as is the KhanDroid application.

Screen Shots:

Khan Academy: A Few Comments from Parents:

Hello, Sal- My 12 year old son..., has Autism and has had a terrible time with math! We have tried everything- viewed everything- BOUGHT everything... well, we stumbled across your video on decimals and it got through!!!! Then, we went to the dreaded fractions. Again, he GOT IT!!! We could not believe it! He was so excited! It is your soothing voice and calm manner, coupled with an easy- going explanation and examples! I cannot say thank you enough- you are a hero!!! I had all but given up on math with him.

I am home schooling 2 children, both with challenges- both who respond well to you. You are the magic math teacher!! You are so wonderful, I cannot say so enough! I emailed your video clips to everyone I know who are in similar situations to my own, and there are many of us! Thank you so much and God bless you....

I don’t know who you are but in my mind you are a savior. My children really struggle with math; there is an inherited learning disability in my family. They get it but only after seeing it done multiple times. Your videos will allow us to help our children get caught up with their peers. As a parent I have to say, Thank You Thank You Thank You.

9.2.9 Application 9: IDEAL: Formula Finder Beta |top|

Accessible Design Strategy:

Add a speech-based interface to a semantic search engine for STEM content.


IDEAL: Formula Finder Beta enables students to search for and discover math content through the use of an evolutionary semantic search engine for math and science, EqsQuest. EqsQuest makes scientific content more accessible. They do this by expanding searchable data spaces onto scientific notations, expressions, equations and formulas. See:


9.2.10 Application 10: NASA’s Math Description Engine (MDE) |top|

Accessible Design Strategy:

Create accessible “ports-of-entry” to web-based math resources

NASA’s Math Description Engine (MDE) was used to create MathTrax, a graphing tool for middle school and high school students to graph equations, physics simulations or plot data files.  The graphs have descriptions and sound so you can hear and read about the graph. Blind and low vision users can access visual math data and graph or experiment with equations and datasets. MathTrax and the MDE SDK received a 2007 Tech Museum Award and named the 2006 NASA Software of the Year runner-up! MDE was then used to create the following, mobile-friendly, web-based resources:

This resource was designed to enable students to enter an equation and see both a visual description and a graph of the equation. For example, entering “y = 2*x +5” yields the following:


Your input equation is y = 2*x +5. The graph of the equation is a line. It rises steeply from left to right with a slope of 2. The x-intercept is -2.5. The y-intercept is 5. The domain of the equation is {x such that -infinity < x < infinity}. The range of the equation is {y such that -infinity < y < infinity}.

Visual Graph:


This resource is designed to enable students to enter an equation and see both a math and visual description of that equation. For example, entering “y-k = (x-h)^2/(4c)” yields the following:

Visual Description:

Your input equation is y -0.0 = (x -0.0)^2/(4*1.0). The graph of the equation is a parabola. It opens to the North. Focal length can be a measure of a parabola's width and we can compare this parabola to a reference parabola, y=x^2, with focal length 0.25. At 1 this parabola's focal length is about 4 times the focal length of the reference parabola so this parabola's opening is very wide compared to the reference parabola. What happens to the focal length and parabola width when you change the coefficient of x^2? Enter y=c*x^2, with c=1. Then change c to see what happens to the parabola.

Math Description:

Your input equation is y -0.0 = (x -0.0)^2/(4*1.0). The graph of the equation is a parabola. The vertex is located at the point (0, 0). The curve has an axis of symmetry which is the line given by 1*x = 0. Its axis of symmetry is oriented at an angle of 90 degrees from the positive x -axis. In other words, the curve opens to the North. The focus is located at the point (0, 1). The focal length is 1. The directrix is the line given by 1*y+1 = 0. The angle of inclination of the directrix is 0. The x-intercept is 0. The y-intercept is 0. The ascending region is {x such that 0 <= x < infinity}. The descending region is {x such that - infinity < x <= 0}. The equation is a conic section. The domain of the equation is {x such that -infinity < x < infinity}. The range of the equation is {y such that 0 <= y < infinity}.


10.0 Mobile Testing Tools |top|

Sales of smartphones and tablets are growing rapidly. Smartphone sales to end users reached 470 million units at the end of 2011. This represents a growth rate 66.7% over 2010 sales of 282 million units. Smartphone sales to end users are expected to exceed 1 billion units by 2015[43].

Google recently announced that mobile searches have grown by 400% since 2010, and many forecasters predict that by the year 2013 there will be 1.7 billion mobile internet users. That means there will effectively be more people using mobile phones than PCs for accessing the Web. If your website isn’t mobile-friendly, statistics show that 80% of visitors will abandon using it[44].

What follows is a list of resources designed to help ensure that your existing website is mobile-friendly.

10.1 GoMo |top|

GoMo is a Google-led initiative dedicated to helping businesses “Go Mobile” by providing them with the tools and resources they need to make their Websites more mobile-friendly. On the GoMo Website, businesses can see how their sites look on a mobile device using the GoMoMeter tool and get personalized recommendations for creating a more mobile-friendly experience. The site also has information on current mobile trends and mobile site best practices, as well as a list of developers ready to help companies build their mobile sites.

10.2 W3C mobileOK Checker |top|

This checker performs various tests on a Webpage to determine its level of mobile friendliness. The tests are defined in the mobileOK Basic Tests 1.0 specification. A Webpage is mobile OK when it passes all the tests.

10.3 Google Mobilizer |top|

Google Mobilizer is a simple Web tool that lets you input a Web page address and then makes the page mobile-Web-friendly by trimming the content down to its bare essentials. This is an excellent tool for seeing where you can make performance optimizations on your site.

Google Mobilizer Examples:

The mobiReady testing tool evaluates mobile-readiness using industry best practices and standards.


Appendix 1: Guidelines for Mobile Accessibility |top|


Mobile Web Best Practices 1.0 – best practices for mobile Web design and development:

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 – the definitive set of guidelines for building accessible content from the W3C’s Web Accessibility Initiative

Relationship between Mobile Web Best Practices and the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines – published by the W3C Web Accessibility Initiative this document highlights the cross over between the two sets of guidelines based on the barriers of disabled users experience on the Web and limitations of mobile

Barriers Common to Mobile Device Users and People with Disabilities – useful background information as to who is affected and how

Widget Accessibility Best Practices - written by Steve Lee these look at building standards compliant cross platform widgets that are accessible.

Mobile Website Guidelines – published by the University of Austin.


Designing for accessibility - published by Android developers and covers apps

Android accessibility - from the Google Eyes Free project

Android Ice Cream Sandwich (V4.0) Accessibility Information


Best practices designing accessible applications - published by the Blackberry Developer Centre

iOS (iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch)

Accessibility - iPhone – Vision:

Accessibility - iPhone - Supported Braille Displays:

Accessibility - iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch:

Accessibility - iPod + iTunes - Vision - iPod touch:

Nokia and Symbian

User experience checklist for touch:

User experience checklist for keypad:

Windows mobile

Design guidelines for Windows Mobile – published by Microsoft and also covers usability, navigation, controls and text guidelines

Accessibility and Ergonomic Guidelines – for Windows Mobile published by Microsoft


Appendix 2: Mobile Application Developer Guidelines |top|

To help app developers consider accessibility in their design process, check out these guidelines to develop accessible apps on major mobile platforms:

Android Accessibility Eyes-Free Posts and Discussions (Updated Continually):

Android Carrier-Focused Forums (Updated Continually)

Android Designing for Accessibility:

Android Platform Version Distribution:

Android Smartphone Forums by Manufacturer by Model (Constantly Updated)

Apple Accessibility Programming Guide for iOS:

Blackberry Accessibility Development Guide:

Designing for Accessibility (Google):

GARI: The Global Accessibility Reporting Initiative, or GARI, gives you the most complete database of accessible cell phones available. What’s the best part? It’s easy to use.

Windows Accessibility Application Development for Windows Mobile:

Wireless for All: one of the most complete Website designed to help people with disabilities, seniors and their families to find a cell phone and service! CTIA-The Wireless Association® and the wireless industry created to be your “first stop” to learn about the ever-changing world of cell phones and wireless services, and discover those that meet your specific needs

World Wide Web Consortium (“W3C”): Web Content Accessibility and Mobile Web:


Appendix 3: Author’s Bio |top|

Steve Jacobs has been in the computer industry for 37 years. Steve is President of IDEAL Group, Inc. and CEO of Apps4Android, Inc., one of six IDEAL Group companies. IDEAL Group is a 2002 spin-off from IDEAL at NCR Corporation where Steve served as President until his retirement at the end of 2002 after 25 years of service.

Apps4Android, established in January, 2009 is the world’s largest developer of Android mobile accessibility applications with 26 applications and 4.4 million installations. Apps4Android's mobile applications are being used on over 850 different Android devices, made by 47 manufacturers, and distributed by 60 wireless service providers, in 136 countries.

Other IDEAL Group companies include:

  1. Online Conferencing Systems Group, Inc.
    Established: January, 2003
    Online Conferencing Systems Group offers fully-accessible, 508-compliant, online conferencing and distance-learning services, systems and support. Every month thousands of people from every corner of the world use IDEAL Conference to meet, participate in, and deliver accessible webinars.

  2. InftyReader Group, Inc.
    Established: March, 2007
    InftyReader, a sophisticated optical character recognition application, is used by thousands of universities around the world to recognize, convert, and enable the editing of math documents into accessible formats in support of students with print disabilities. Converted formats include LaTeX, MathML, Human Readable TeX, and Word XML.
    Also see: Speech Recognition-Based, Math Editor Development Project, and
    You Tube Videos of InftyReader in Action.

  3. EasyCC, Inc.
    Established: June, 2008
    EasyCC is a telecommunications company that supports people with hearing impairments, individuals with mobility disabilities and consumers with print disabilities. From conferences and classrooms to the corporate world, EasyCC cost-effectively delivers real-time text streaming services that are accessible on any platform, including mobile devices. EasyCC’s infrastructure provides the ability to generate captions using speech recognition technology.

  4. Onymous Heroes, Inc.
    Acquired: July, 2010
    Onymous Heroes develops Android utilities, browsers, application installers, image animation applications and much more. Onymous has 958K installations in 136 countries. Also see: Application Listing

  5. Easy Access, Inc.
    Established: October, 2011
    Easy Access, a joint venture between Apps4Android, Inc. and Accessible Systems India is focused on developing document conversion and reading applications that address the access needs of individuals with print disabilities.

Previous to NCR’s spin-off from AT&T, Steve served as Chairman of AT&T Project Freedom. In 1992-1993 Steve’s group pioneered the use of interactive video technology for sign-language communications over telephone lines (dual ISDNs). This technology, now in the mainstream, is referred to as Video Relay Services (VRS).

Jacobs’ Appointments and Congressional Testimonies Include:

Federal Communications Commission’s Video Programming and Emergency Access Advisory Committee (VPEAAC) [2010]

Expert Witness: House Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties hearing on Achieving the Promise of the Americans with Disabilities Act in the Digital Age – Current Issues, Challenges, and Opportunities [2010] and

Federal Communications Commission’s Consumer Advisory Committee [2005-2007]

Federal Communications Commission's Consumer/Disability Telecommunications Advisory Committee which has since been renamed the FCC Consumer Advisory Committee [2000-2002]

Access Board's Electronic and Information Technology Access Advisory Committee [1998-1999]

Access Board's Telecommunications Access Advisory Committee [1997-1998]

Expert Witness: House Committee on Science Subcommittee on Technology hearing on Meeting the Needs of People with Disabilities through Federal Technology Transfer [1997]


Enhancing the Accessibility of Technology-Based Work Environments with the Support of Employee Resource Groups (ERGs) [2010]

The Corporate Social Innovation Model: Enabling Positive Societal Change through the Distribution and Use of Accessible ICT Products and Services [2010]

The Global Business Benefits of Accessible Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Design [2010]

Co-author: Department of Commerce's STAT-USA/Internet Companion to International Business: Highlighting Accessibly-Designed Information and Communications Technology [2007]

Co-author: "Over the Horizon: Potential Impact of Emerging Trends in Information and Communication Technology on Disability Policy and Practice [2006]

Co-author: National Council on Disability report entitled, "Design for Inclusion: Creating a New Marketplace" [2004]

Author: "Design for Inclusion: Industry White Paper" [2004]
Co-author: National Task Force on Technology and Disability report entitled, "Within Our Reach" [2004]

Co-author: the U.S. Access Board's Electronic and Information Technology Access Advisory Committee Report that was used to develop the Access Board’s Electronic and Information Technology Accessibility Standards [2000]

Co-author: the Telecommunications Access Advisory Committee Final Report that was used, by the Access Board, to develop their Telecommunications Act Accessibility Guidelines [1998]



[1] MeTRC: Mathematics eText Research Center

[2] The National Center for Supported EText (NCSeT). University of Oregon. Web. 19 Mar. 2012.

[3] What Is a Print Disability? Maine-AIM. Web. 19 Mar. 2012.

[4] Checklist for Learning Disabilities. Milestones. Web. 20 Mar. 2012.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Signs of Learning Disabilities. NCPAD Blog. Web. 20 Mar. 2012.

[7] IDEAL Group, Inc.

[8] Apps4Android, Inc.

[9] Jacobs, Steve. "List of Apps4Android's Applications." List of Apps4Android's Applications. Android Market, 16 Mar. 2012. Web. 25 Mar. 2012.

[10] Jacobs, Steve. "Apps4Android Application Downloads, Installations, and Cost (Economies-of-Scale) Metrics." Apps4Android. Apps4Android, 16 Mar. 2012. Web. 25 Mar. 2012.

[11] Jacobs, Steve. "Apps4Android Applications Are Being Used on Over 850 Different Android Devices." Apps4Android. Apps4Android, 13 Mar. 2012. Web. 25 Mar. 2012.

[12] Jacobs, Steve. "Apps4Android Applications Being Used on Devices Made by 47 Manufacturers." Apps4Android. Apps4Android, 16 Mar. 2012. Web. 25 Mar. 2012.

[13] Jacobs, Steve. "Apps4Android Applications Being Used by Subscribers of 60 Wireless Service Providers." Apps4Android. Apps4Android, 16 Mar. 2012. Web. 25 Mar. 2012.

[14] Jacobs, Steve. "Apps4Android Applications Being Used in 136 Countries." Apps4Android Applications Being Used in 136 Countries. Apps4Android, 16 Mar. 2012. Web. 25 Mar. 2012.

[15] Jacobs, Steve. "Onymous Heroes Application Downloads and Installations." Onymous Heroes Application Downloads and Installations. Onymous Heroes, Inc., 16 Mar. 2012. Web. 25 Mar. 2012.

[16] Jacobs, Steve. "Eyes-Free Project Application Downloads, Installations, and Cost (Economies-of-Scale) Metrics." Eyes-Free Project Application Downloads, Installations, and Cost (Economies-of-Scale) Metrics. Pps4Android, Inc., 16 Mar. 2012. Web. 25 Mar. 2012.

[17] Norman, Naomi. "Mobile Learning for the NHS: Research Report." Mobile Learning for NHS. Epic, 12 Apr. 2011. Web. 20 Mar. 2012.

[18] Lenhart, Amanda. "MARCH 19, 2012 Teens, Smartphones & Texting." Pew Research Center. Pew Research Center, 19 Mar. 2012. Web. 25 Mar. 2012.

[19] Davidson, Charles M., and Michael J. Santorelli. "The Impact of Broadband on Education." The Advanced Communications Law & Policy Institute. New York Law School, 10 Dec. 2010. Web. 25 Mar. 2012.

[20] Arizona Technology in Education:

[21] "STEM Summit 2010: Early Childhood Through Higher Education." National Academy of Engineering. National Academy of Engineering, 18 Mar. 2010. Web. 25 Mar. 2012.

[22] "SMART Table Helps Children Develop 'math Talk'" Virginia Tech. 22 Nov. 2012. Web. 25 Mar. 2012.

[23] "Engaging Young Children’s Mathematical Thinking by Mathematizing the World." Head Start Center for Inclusion. University of Washington. Web. 26 Mar. 2012.

[24] "STEM Summit 2010: Early Childhood Through Higher Education." National Academy of Engineering. National Academy of Engineering, 18 Mar. 2010. Web. 25 Mar. 2012.

[25] U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Available online at

[26] Ibid.

[27] National Center for Education Statistics (2011). The Nation’s Report Card: Mathematics 2011(NCES 2012–458). Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C.

[28] Ibid.





[33] "Introduction to AT." Http:// School of Public Health and Health Professions (PHHP) University at Buffalo. Web. 25 Mar. 2012.

[34] Karnjanaprakorn, Michael. 2010. Corporate Social Innovation (Not Responsibility). N.p.: All Day Buffet.

[35] An SDK is typically a set of development tools that allows for the creation of applications for a certain software package, software framework, hardware platform, computer system, operating system, or similar platform.

[36] Technical documentation is documentation that describes handling, functionality and architecture of a technical product or a product under development or use and is critical to the success of any developer.

[37] Developers can share and distribute code and accessible tutorials in order to aid other developers in creating accessible tools.

[38] Developer forums are online discussion sites. From a developer’s standpoint, forums are Web applications that support developers communicating with each other to discuss common topics and resolve technical issues.

[39] DDPs are programs that provide developers with the hardware device(s) they need to develop applications for that hardware device(s). The device(s) are often offered at a discount.

[40] Fuse Interactive



[43] "Tablet Market And Smartphones Market: Global Database & Forecast (2010 - 2015)." Http:// Transparency Market Research. Web. 26 Mar. 2012.

[44] Why Your Website Should Be Mobile Friendly. Pinnacle Blog, 23 Mar. 2012. Web. 26 Mar. 2012. http://www.pinnacle-m


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An IDEAL Group, Inc. Company.